Pregnant Hispanics

The survey, co-sponsored by the Hispanic advocacy group National Council of La Raza, was an attempt to to do just that. ''The fertility rate for women of Hispanic origin was 97.5 live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 50 percent higher than the rate for non-Hispanic women,'' the National Center for Health Statistics reported. The fertility rate for Hispanics — defined by demographers as people who report they are of Hispanic origin on birth certificates — dropped to 67.6 from 97.4 births per 1,000 women. By contrast, the rate for non-Hispanic whites fell by 6 percent to 57.2, and by about 12 percent for blacks to 63.1, according to Child Trends. The American Community Survey measures recent fertility by asking whether women ages 15 to 50 had a birth in the last year.

It was estimated that 51 percent of Hispanic mothers had completed high school, compared with 83 percent of non-Hispanic whites and 64 percent of black mothers. Over all, the second highest fertility rate among Hispanic women was 83 live births per 1,000 women aged 15-44 in a category covering women of Central American and South American origin. December 18, 1984, Section A, Page 26 Buy ReprintsView on timesmachineTimesMachine is an exclusive benefit for home delivery and digital subscribers.About the ArchiveThis is a digitized version of an article from The Times’s print archive, before the start of online publication in 1996. To preserve these articles as they originally appeared, The Times does not alter, edit or update them.Occasionally the digitization process introduces transcription errors or other problems. Please send reports of such problems to [email protected] among Hispanic women in the United States is nearly 50 percent greater than among other Americans, and females of Mexican descent have the highest fertility rate, a Government study reported today.

Findings suggest that measurement of household/caregiving activities and other obligatory activities (e.g., occupational and transportation) in future studies may help to avoid misclassifying women as sedentary when the opposite might be true. Finally, the significant positive relationship identified between pre-pregnancy and pregnancy exercise suggests that future interventions should target inactive women prior to the onset of pregnancy.

This report, updating a similar 2008 paper by the nonprofit foundation, also highlights the fact that a greater proportion of Hispanic women have babies each year than any other population in the United States, making it the fastest-growing ethnic group in the country. In this prospective study among Hispanic women, few women met ACOG guidelines for sports/exercise activity in pregnancy; however, rates increased when considering activity of any type. Parous women and those with the highest levels of pre-pregnancy activity were less likely to become inactive at any point during pregnancy. The present study examined patterns and predictors of change in physical activity levels throughout pregnancy in a prospective study of pregnant Hispanic women. Prior studies have suggested that sociodemographics, behavioral, and psychosocial factors influence physical activity beliefs and behaviors.

For abstinent females, greater levels of language acculturation—meaning they spoke more English than Spanish—translated into lower PWS score. For sexually experienced females having been born outside the U.S. decreased their pregnancy wantedness. Another surprising finding is that only hormonal contraception use at last sexual intercourse was found significant in decreasing pregnancy wantedness among sexually active females, but condom use was not significant in any group. What’s more, women in general who became pregnant prior to the age of 15 were more likely than others to indicate the pregnancy was unintentional. Teens who became pregnant early were also less likely than the older women to be raised within a religion, to be living with both biological parents at 14-years-old, and to have used contraception the first time they had sex.

In conclusion, it seems clear that Latina teen pregnancy is not caused solely by poverty or low health care coverage; instead, there is a cultural factor that adds to the issue. However, it is not clear if Latina teen pregnancy is actually considered a problem by the Latino community. Further action in this area must take into account cultural values that may actually favor early childbearing. Still, young mothers are far less likely to finish high school than those who wait to have children, and children with more educated parents are far less likely to live in poverty. [18] In addition, it is important that Latinos receive better sexual education so that they may be properly informed about protecting themselves from unwanted pregnancies as well as STDs.

Latinas and African American teens have seen little drop in pregnancy numbers over the last decade, while statistics for non-Hispanic whites have been declining. Not only are the numbers for Latina teens holding steady, they are more likely than other girls to have multiple teen births. Carla Galindo, behavioral scientist for the CDC, said the birth rate among Hispanic teens has decreased, but they still rank the highest in teen pregnancies based on ethnicity.

Interventions focused on young men at high risk of fathering a teen pregnancy, such as young men at risk of health disparities due to low socioeconomic status, race/ethnicity, or exposure to other social determinants negatively affecting health. Columbia University, New York University, and Promundo were the organizations funded to conduct this work. Teenage pregnancy, Sex education, immigrants, Culture, taboo, stigma, birth control, health disparities, prevention, teen birth rates, poverty, abortion, California Healthy Youth Act (Show more tags) Teenage pregnancy, Sex education, immigrants, Culture, taboo, stigma, birth control, health disparities, prevention, teen birth rates, poverty, abortion, California Healthy Youth Act By Mackenzie Mays Tweet This story is part of a series about sex education and teen pregnancy, and is produced as a project for the USC Center for Health Journalism’sCalifornia Fellowship. Dr. Genevieve Martínez-García, Director of Innovation and Research at Healthy Teen Network, is a health educator committed to bringing innovation to the field of sexual and reproductive health.

Latinas have the highest teen-pregnancy rate of any group. The birth rate (per 1,000 girls) for white teens in California is nine, compared to a rate of 29 for Hispanic teens, according to theNational Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy. The teen birth rate for black teens is also disproportionately high, at 23. Hispanic women may be more prone to giving birth prematurely -- defined as before the 37th week of pregnancy -- because of risk factors such as being three times as likely as white mothers to be younger than 17 years old.

“Understanding risk factors for pregnancy before age 15 years may help clinicians address the social, family planning, and reproductive health needs of this population,” the study stated in conclusion. A recent study, for example, published in the journal Pediatrics, indicated teen pregnancy was higher among girls with severe mental illness. While no specific conclusions by researchers were drawn between those findings and the rate of Latina teen pregnancy, Latina teens are considered a high-risk group when it comes to conditions like depression and thoughts of suicide. Since 1991, the U.S. has seen a 63 percent decrease in birth rates among teens aged 15 to 17.

MinusRelated PagesUS teen birth rates (births per 1,000 females aged 15 to 19 years) decreased 7% overall from 2016 to 2017.1 Decreases occurred for teens of most racial groups races and for Hispanic teens. Despite these declines, racial/ethnic, geographic, and socioeconomic disparities persist. Achieving health equity, eliminating disparities, and improving the health of all groups is an overarching goal of Healthy People 2020external icon . Evidence-based programs and clinical services to prevent teen pregnancy through individual behavior change are important, but research is also shedding light on the role social determinants of health play in the overall distribution of disease and health, including teen pregnancy.

Such programs should involve counseling women by providing them with information on prenatal physical activity guidelines and encouraging them to adopt lifestyle changes to minimize the risk of pregnancy complications. Providers should also help their prenatal care patients identify strategies to overcome barriers to adopting and maintaining prenatal physical activity. Women with higher BMI who were active prior to pregnancy were less likely to become inactive during pregnancy. These results are consistent with prior literature13,27 and may be due to true differences or to over-reporting of activities such as walking by active overweight women. Zhang et al. found that women with a higher ponderal index prior to pregnancy reported higher levels of walking and calisthenics as compared to leaner women.29 The self-reported measure of physical activity is subject to potential misclassification that would tend to bias the results toward the null.

The largest decline in Hispanic fertility rates has been among women of Mexican heritage, Dr. Guzman said. That is significant for the nation’s fertility patterns because of the sheer size of the Mexican origin population, which accounts for nearly two-thirds of all Hispanics and around 11 percent of the American population, according to the Pew Research Center. CDC is supporting three organizations from 2015 to 2020 toenhance youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health services in publicly funded health centers and increase the number of young people accessing sexual and reproductive health services.

Somewhere along the way, the aspirations fail to match up to reality. The survey attempts to examine some of the reasons for the disparity and why Latinas now have the highest teen birth rate among all ethnic and racial groups in the United States. The survey also found that 84 percent of Latino teens and 91 percent of Latino parents believe that graduating from college or university or having a promising career is the most important goal for a teen's future. United States Hispanic births totaled 321,954 in 1981, including 222,143 to mothers of Mexican descent, 33,376 to Puerto Rican mothers, 8,369 to Cubans, 24,380 to mothers of Central and South American descent, and 33,686 to other women of Hispanic origin.

Hispanic origin refers to a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other Spanish culture or origin. While Hispanic people may be of any race, over half of the Hispanic population racially identified as White alone and about one-third identified as Some Other Race alone in the 2010 Census. A surveyconducted byPlanned Parenthoodand the Center for Latino Adolescent and Family Health in 2013 showed that Latino parents are open to more sex education for teens, and see teen pregnancy as a major issue – more so for their communities than others. A third of the more than 1,000 adults polled nationally also said Latino teens have less access to birth control than other Americans.

In addition to evidence-based prevention programs, teens need access toyouth-friendly contraceptive and reproductive health servicesand support fromparents and other trusted adults, who can play an important rolein helping teens make healthy choices about relationships, sex, and birth control. Efforts at the community level that address social and economic factors associated with teen pregnancy also play a critical role inaddressing racial/ethnic and geographical disparities observed in teen births in the US. We found that Latino youth do not want to get pregnant in most cases.

This is part of the reason why Latina teen pregnancy is becoming such a pressing issue. National rates of teen pregnancy have decreased dramatically over the past 20 years, yet the teen pregnancy for Latinas has decreased the least. In 2007, the birth rate among non-Hispanic whites ages 15 to 19 was 27.2 per 1,000, and 64.3 per 1,000 for non-Hispanic black teens in the same age range.

For each Hispanic origin group, those who reported their race as Some Other Race alone were compared with those who reported White alone. The odds ratios show whether the probability of Some Other Race women having a recent birth differed from White alone women for that specific Hispanic origin group. Odds ratios can be used to show the probability of an event occurring compared to the probability of an event not occurring relative to a base population. Here, we use odds ratios to show the probability of giving birth in the last year relative to reported race of Hispanic origin subgroups. Figure 2 shows odds ratios of recent fertility for women of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Salvadoran, Dominican and Other Hispanic origins by race.

They are also less likely to have graduated from high school and more likely to lack health insurance. The rate of preterm births among Hispanics was about 12 percent higher than that of white mothers in 2012, the report said. Many Hispanic people in the United States retain the customs and traditions of their country of origin.

Condom use, the desired behavioral outcome of evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs, appears irrelevant to pregnancy desire. It would be interesting to explore more in-depth the acculturation dynamics that impact sexually abstinent girls differently and the religious views males hold.

In order to examine if there are differences among Hispanic women by race, we examined recent fertility for each of the five largest Hispanic subgroups and one residual group by race presented as odds ratios. Cazares says the disparities among teen birth rates is a complex problem that transcends culture. Regardless of the cause, she says comprehensive sex education can be a solution. The findings from this most recent study go along with previous data on Latina teen pregnancy.

Wheat flour manufacturers are required by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to fortify that type of flour with folic acid, also called folate. Results from this study identify predictors of change in physical activity in a high-risk Puerto Rican/Dominican heritage population.

The report found that Hispanic mothers other than Cubans were less likely than non-Hispanic women to begin prenatal care in the first trimester of pregnancy. Early prenatal care was begun by 61 percent of Hispanic mothers, compared with 62 percent of blacks and 82 percent of whites. Miss Ventura said in her report that mothers of Hispanic origin were less likely to have completed high school than non-Hispanic women.

Therefore, it was hypothesized that physical activity levels would decrease throughout pregnancy, and that sociodemographic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors would predict change in physical activity during pregnancy. Analyses were conducted in 2012.

A key focus is working to refer and link vulnerable young people to these services—including those in foster care, juvenile justice and probation, or housing developments. The three organizations funded to conduct this work are Sexual Health Initiative for Teens North Carolina (Durham, North Carolina), Mississippi First, (Coahoma, Quitman, and Tunica counties, Mississippi), and the Georgia Association for Primary Health Care, (Chatham County, Georgia). For more information about this model of recent fertility by Hispanic origin subgroups by race, see the poster and please join us at the 2017 Population Association of America conference.

[15] These fears could be caused by a lack of quality sex education, or could possibly stem from a history of medical racism that includes sterilization campaigns targeting Latinas, which has led to mistrust of the medical community by many Latinos. After a period of decline, the birth rate for U.S. teenagers 15 to 19 years rose in 2007 by about 1 percent, to 42.5 births per 1,000, according to preliminary data in a March 2009 report by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's National Center for Health Statistics. According to the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy, 53 percent of Latinas get pregnant in their teens, about twice the national average.

Pre-, early-, mid-, and late-pregnancy physical activity were assessed using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. Women reported the frequency and duration of household/caregiving, occupational, sports/exercise, and transportation activities, and were classified according to compliance with American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists guidelines for physical activity. A growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity during pregnancy can reduce risk of pregnancy complications. However, factors influencing activity in pregnant Hispanic women, who have high rates of sedentary activity as compared to non-Hispanic whites, are not well characterized.

According to thestudy'sstatistics on birth rates in individual states and regions, the District of Columbia saw the highest amount of teen pregnancies in 2012 followed by New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, and Mississippi. "One of the things that caught our eye was, while Hispanics represent 17 percent of the population, 24 percent of premature babies are Hispanic," said Dr. Edward McCabe, senior vice president and chief medical officer of the March of Dimes, an organization aimed at improving the health of mothers and babies.

The teen birth rate among Hispanic teens ages 15 to 19 was 81.7 per 1,000. ''Teen-age childbearing is relatively much more frequent among Mexican and Puerto Rican women than among white non-Hispanic women,'' the study said. It was estimated that 19 percent of Mexican mothers and 23 percent of Puerto Rican mothers were under 20 years old age, compared with 12 percent of non-Hispanic whites. Blacks had a higher rate, 26 percent, at that age.

As a result, their use of preventive health care measures is lower than the majority of the population. Use of screening tests such as breast examinations and Papanicolaou smears are minimal among Hispanic women. Evidence has shown that the Latina community as a whole is using birth control at rates far lower than non-Hispanic whites, a fact that is likely responsible for the high rates of teen pregnancy in this community. Flores said it is crucial to understand the beliefs and attitudes that influence teen behavior in order to reduce the high rates of Hispanic teen pregnancy.

Between 2007 and 2017, the population of Hispanic women of childbearing age in Wake County grew nearly 50 percent, drawn by a booming local economy. Yet the fertility rate for Hispanic women dropped by about 47 percent, according to Dr. Johnson. The rate for women who were not Hispanic dropped by about 16 percent in the same period, he said. The United States population grew by just 0.6 percent last year, the smallest increase in 80 years, according to Ken Johnson, a demographer at the University of New Hampshire.

He noted that, at current rates, young Hispanic women will have an average of two children, down from three just a decade ago. The implications of the Hispanic decline are broad. With the white population shrinking, Hispanics account for the majority of the population gains in the United States. And while their fertility rates are still the highest for any major racial and ethnic group, the steep drops in recent years are having an effect.

However, their ambivalent attitudes towards a pregnancy might place them at risk by not actively seeking effective ways to prevent a pregnancy. As sexual health educators, we need to shift our lens and think beyond the classroom, the contraception, and the curriculum we teach. Where Latino youth live, learn, and play matters! And this is evidenced by the familial, social, and cultural environment that helps shape their views towards a pregnancy and towards actively seeking pregnancy protection. This study suggests that the family environment (who lives with the youth and their level of education), their beliefs (religion), their acculturation level (language use and place of birth), and use of hormonal contraception play an important role in youth’s sexual and reproductive health decisions.

Larissa Mercado-López, a women’s studies professor at Fresno State who focuses on Latina issues, warned it’s important not to generalize Latino culture, but said cultural ideas and norms can be factors in teen pregnancy rates and the teaching of sex education. Vincent Guilamo-Ramos, co-director of theCenter for Latino Adolescent and Family Healthat NYU, is leery of tying culture to teen birth rates. He says that in places like the Valley, which have what he calls “contraceptive deserts,” the primary problem is a lack of outreach to Latino families. Meanwhile, the Valley is home to six of the 10 counties withthe state’s highest teen birth rates. Racial disparities also exist among abortion rates.

Among Dominican Women, 33.7 percent reported White alone and 47.6 percent reported Some Other Race alone. Black alone was the third largest reported race for Puerto Rican, Cuban, and Dominican women. The study was based on data collected from birth certificates in 22 states, accounting for 95 percent of United States Hispanic births. Hispanic people can be of any race but in this report were enumerated separately from black and white non-Hispanic women. Health EquityHealth equity is achieved when everyone has an equal opportunity to reach his or her health potential regardless of social position or other characteristics such as race, ethnicity, gender, religion, sexual identity, or disability.

When examining the reported race of Hispanic origin subgroups in the 2011-2015 American Community Survey, variations in the racial distributions for women ages 15 to 50 are clear. The racial distributions of the five largest Hispanic origin subgroups and a residual category, “Other Hispanic,” are shown in Figure 1. Among women of Mexican, Puerto Rican, Salvadoran and Other Hispanic origins, over half reported they were White alone and about one-third reported Some Other Race alone. However, the racial distribution for women of Cuban and Dominican origin differs. Among Cuban women, 86.7 percent reported White alone while only 5.9 percent reported Some Other Race alone.

However, other racial groups that also have high rates of poverty and low rates of medical coverage similar to Latinos but have much lower rates of teen pregnancy. This suggests that there is a cultural factor that is affecting the issue [5]. Latinos are the fastest growing minority population in the U.S., and also the youngest. It is estimated that 40.9% of Latinos are under the age of 21, [3] which also suggests that the Latino population will grow at an incredibly fast rate as this young population reaches adulthood and starts families of their own.