In other cases, the radiologist cannot distinguish between benign and malignant lumps with complete certainty. A fine needle biopsy and review of tissue under a microscope may be recommended for further evaluation, but in some cases surveillance and a repeat sonogram after a few months looking for stability may suffice. The overall mean thyroid gland volume combined for both lobes and sexes obtained from this study was 6.44 cm3. There was no previous local study for comparison to the best of our knowledge. But in Africa, Anele  studied the thyroid gland volume among Nigerians.
With the subject placed in the supine position, the neck was extended with the aid of a sandbag placed under the subjects' shoulders. A coupling gel was applied to the anterior portion of the neck and the transducer placed over it. The transducer was placed across the neck in the midline for the transverse scan. The transducer was then moved in the superoinferior and mediolateral directions until both lobes of the thyroid gland, the left and right common carotid arteries and the adjacent internal jugular vein were visualized. The anteroposterior (thickness) and the mediolateral (width) dimensions were measured.
Tell your doctor of any exposure to radiation you may have had, whether as a child or an adult. If you see or feel a thyroid nodule yourself — usually in the middle of your lower neck, just above your breastbone — call your primary care doctor for an appointment to evaluate the lump. Surgery. The usual treatment for malignant nodules is surgical removal, often along with the majority of thyroid tissue — a procedure called near-total thyroidectomy. Risks of thyroid surgery include damage to the nerve that controls your vocal cords (laryngeal nerve) and damage to your parathyroid glands — four tiny glands located on the back of your thyroid gland that help control the level of calcium in your blood.
The scan time was reduced to the barest minimum, while maintaining accuracy, to avoid undue discomfort to the subjects. All measurements were carried out by the authors to avoid individual variation. Subjects with thyroid lesions in ultrasound were to be excluded from the study; however none was found.
Ultrasound has become one of the primary imaging modalities for the assessment of the major glands of internal secretion within the cervical region. The thyroid gland is among the most commonly imaged glands using ultrasound due to the limitation of clinical examination . Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provide structural information of the thyroid gland just like ultrasound but are relatively more expensive.
A prospective ultrasound (US) study of thyroid dimensions of 500 school-aged children in our environment consisting of 227 boys and 273 girls was done from 1 December 2006 to July 2007. The subjects were examined by the authors and subjects with palpable abnormal thyroid gland were excluded from the study. The thyroid dimensions (length, height, and diameter) were taken for each lobe by means of ultrasound (US).
Ultrasound is very sensitive and shows many nodules that cannot be felt. In some age groups, nodules are seen on ultrasound in as many as 70 percent of adults. The vast majority of these are benign regions of thyroid tissue that pose no health risk. The minority of these are true tumors of the thyroid and may require further diagnosis or treatment.
The mean volume of the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland in all the patients studied were (1.37) mL and (1.24) mL, respectively (Table 1). The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left. This study aimed to establish a local reference of thyroid volume in Sudanese normal subjects using ultrasound.
Radioactive iodine. Doctors often use radioactive iodine to treat hyperfunctioning adenomas or multinodular goiters.
Taken as a capsule or in liquid form, radioactive iodine is absorbed by your thyroid gland. This causes the nodules to shrink and signs and symptoms of hyperthyroidism to subside, usually within two to three months. Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy. Nodules are often biopsied to make sure no cancer is present. FNA biopsy helps to distinguish between benign and malignant thyroid nodules.
Anatomically, the normal thyroid gland consists of two lobes which lie on the anterolateral surface of the trachea extending from the thyroid cartilage superiorly to the sixth tracheal ring inferiorly. They are asymmetrical with the right lobe being larger than the left, and the thyroid gland is larger in males [4, 5]. In recent decades, sonography has become the gold standard for assessment of the thyroid gland . The objective of this study was to determine the measurement of normal range of ultrasound (US) thyroid gland dimensions in school-aged children (6-16 years) in our environment and compared with what is obtained elsewhere.
During the procedure, your doctor inserts a very thin needle in the nodule and removes a sample of cells. Physical exam.
3. Cystic or calcified lymph node metastases adjacent to the thyroid gland may be mistaken for benign nodule in multinodular thyroid disease. Incomplete rim of thyroid parenchyma around the mass and lack of movement of the mass with the thyroid gland during swallowing favors extrathyroid lymph nodal metastasis. Cystic metastatic nodes are more common in papillary carcinoma thyroid, while calcified metastatic nodes are found both in papillary and medullary carcinoma thyroid. Dr Tom Foster and A.Prof Frank Gaillard ◉ ◈ et al.The thyroid gland is an endocrine organ in the neck which is completely enveloped by pretracheal fascia (middle-layer of the deep cervical fascia) and lies in the visceral space.
The ultrasound system used is general electric (GE) medical system, made by Yokogawa medical system, , 7-127 Asahigaoka 4-chome, Hino-shi Tokyo, Japan. Model 2302650 with serial of 1028924YM7 and manufacturing date of April 2005, a grey scale real-time ultrasound machine, fitted with a 10 MHz transducer was used for the study.
The thyroid size was found to increase during pregnancy and decreases up to 12 months postpartum period [17, 18]. The menstrual cycle also seems to associate with cyclical alteration of thyroid size in healthy women , and, for that reasons, these subjects were excluded from this study. The 103 subjects studied consist of 28 (27.18 %) females and 75 (72.82%) males. The mean age of the subjects was 21.79 years with a range of 19–29 years.
The overall mean volume ± SD volume of the thyroid gland for both lobes in all the patients studied was 6.44 ± 2.44 mL. The mean volume for both lobes in females and males were 5.78 ± 1.96 mL and 6.69 ± 2.56 mL, respectively.
The males' thyroid volume was greater than the females'. The mean volume of the right and left lobes of the thyroid gland in males and females were 3.38 ± 1.37 mL and 3.09 ± 1.24 mL, respectively. The right thyroid lobe volume was greater than the left. The values obtained in this study were lower than those reported from previous studies.
US study in 100 English newborn infants in the first week of life, a subset of iodine sufficient European children from a study of 5709 children, aged 6-15 years 1 and a subset of German children from a study of 252 children aged 2-4 years 2 [1-3]. One hundred and fifty children aged 0-16 years, without clinical evidence of liver or intestinal disease, which were referred for abdominal ultrasound were included in the study. Adapted from reference 22 The children are examined in the supine position with hips in neutral position. Publicationdate 2018-02-09This is an overview of normal values of ultrasound examinations in neonates and children. High-resolution USG has improved in the past few years and has become a very valuable diagnostic tool in the evaluation of thyroid diseases.
US gel was applied over the thyroid area. The transducer was directly placed on the skin over the thyroid gland, and an image of each lobe was obtained in transverse and longitudinal planes.
Real time USG also helps to guide the diagnostic and therapeutic interventional procedures in various thyroid diseases. Several studies have been conducted to evaluate the role of ultrasound using elastography and contrast agent in the characterisation of thyroid nodules. 2.
It is supplied by the superior thyroidal branch of the external carotid artery and the inferior thyroid branch of the subclavian artery. The recurrent laryngeal nerve runs along the inferior thyroid artery.
This can cause body functions to slow down or stop completely. Screening newborns for hypothyroidism is mandatory in the United States, Hershman said. The thyroid gland, in particular, controls just about every cell in the human body.
This finding is in agreement with previous studies done among the Caucasians and the Chinese [5, 20, 21]. Use of a curvilinear probe readily demonstrates the normal thymus inferior to the left lobe of the thyroid. Adapted from reference 13 In the same study the wall thickness of the colon was measured. The thyroid gland was originally known as the "laryngeal gland", and was renamed the "thyroid gland" by Thomas Wharton in 1646. Make note of your personal and family medical history, including any history of thyroid disorders or thyroid cancer.
If you suffer from neck pain, inform the technologist so that they can help situate you in a comfortable position for the exam. An ultrasound of the thyroid is usually completed within 30 minutes. Subjects with anterior neck swelling or clinical evidence of thyroid disease were excluded. Furthermore, women during menstruation, pregnant, women who have delivered within the last 12 months, were excluded from the study because this may affect the thyroid size. The data was collected and analyzed using SPSS for windows version 17.
It is estimated that 2 billion (35%) people worldwide have inadequate iodine intake.  Prevalence of goiter in school-aged children greater than or equal to 5% is indicative of a public health problem; thus the target group for goiter screening are recommended ., Normal ranges of thyroid volume by ultrasound (US) in the pediatric age group have been published by many authors. ,,,,,,,, One documented nutritional study in a Nigerian population was found in the reviewed literature.  However, no such similar studies have been done in Benin City Edo State, Nigeria even though cassava products are major staple foods in Edo state.
Thyroid nodule(s) with suspicious USG features should be investigated further with FNA biopsy. Moreover, the work-up of asymptomatic thyroid nodules (incidentilomas) must be weighed against high prevalence of benign thyroid nodules and low mortality rate from small thyroid carcinomas. 8.
Thyroid ultrasound uses sound waves to produce pictures of the thyroid gland within the neck. It does not use ionizing radiation and is commonly used to evaluate lumps or nodules found during a routine physical or other imaging exam.
to analyze the appearance of thyroid nodules and determine if they are the more common benign nodule or if the nodule has features that require a biopsy. If biopsy is required, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration can help improve accuracy of the biopsy. This study has shown that the right thyroid lobe volume (3.38 mL) was greater than the left (3.09 mL) with significant statistical difference between the right and the left lobe volumes in both sexes.
Sonography has improved with the development of high-frequency transducers, which allow a more detailed study of the thyroid gland . As a result, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Council for the Control of Iodine Deficiency Disorders (ICCIDD) now consider sonography the diagnostic method for assessment of goiter . It is most often used in assessing the incidence of goiter in Third World populations, especially in children . Intra- and interobserver variation can lead to differences in volume calculation, irrespective of the correction factor.
It secretes hormones calcitonin, T4 (thyroxine, or tetraiodothyronine) and T3 (triiodothyronine) into the bloodstream. The hormones control the rate at which cells and organs turn nutrients into energy and the amount of oxygen cells use. During the exam, you may need to extend your neck to help the sonographer (technologist) examine your thyroid with ultrasound.
A total of 103 healthy subjects were studied, 28 (27.18%) females and 75 (72.82%) males. Thyroid volume was estimated using ellipsoid formula. The mean age and range of the subjects was 21.8 (19–29) years; the mean body mass index (BMI) was 22.3 (16.46–26.07) kg/m2.
This involves treating a benign nodule with levothyroxine (Levoxyl, Synthroid, others), a synthetic form of thyroxine that you take in pill form. The idea is that supplying additional thyroid hormone will signal the pituitary to produce less TSH, the hormone that stimulates the growth of thyroid tissue. Watchful waiting.
This technique involves injecting a small amount of alcohol in the cancerous thyroid nodule. After a thyroidectomy, you'll need lifelong treatment with levothyroxine to supply your body with normal amounts of thyroid hormone. Surgery. Occasionally, a nodule that's clearly benign may require surgery, especially if it's so large that it makes it hard to breathe or swallow.
The craniocaudal and the sagittal dimensions of both lobes were measured on the longitudinal image. The transverse dimension was measured on the transverse image.
This value showed the thyroid dimensions to be slightly lower than the Western values [5, 20]. With the ellipsoid model, the height, the width, and the depth of each lobe are measured and multiplied. The obtained result was then multiplied by a correction factor, which is π/6 or 0.524 . The subjects were examined in supine position, with pillow placed under their shoulders to hyperextend the neck.
For that determination, your doctor may order a blood test or a radioactive iodine uptake test. An ultrasound of the thyroid produces pictures of the thyroid gland and the adjacent structures in the neck. The thyroid gland is located in front of the neck just above the collar bones and is shaped like a butterfly, with one lobe on either side of the neck connected by a narrow band of tissue. It is one of nine endocrine glands located throughout the body that make and send hormones into the bloodstream.
Humans can live without their thyroid if a hormone pill is taken daily. Hypothyroidism is the opposite of Graves' disease. It occurs when the thyroid gland does not produce enough hormones.
"Although T3 is much more potent than T4, there is much evidence to support that people with hypothyroidism feel much better when they receive a combination treatment that includes a small amount of T3 with the commonly prescribed T4," Samet said. The thyroid gland is an H-shaped organ composed of two lobes joined by a narrow isthmus located just below the laryngeal cartilages. The normal thyroid weighs approximately 15 to 25 g, with each lobe 4 to 6 cm in length and 1.3 to 1.8 cm in thickness. The isthmus measures less than 4 to 5 mm. In Sudan, there is absence of domestic reference for thyroid volumes; in Sudan, as for as we know, no study was published in the open literature, regarding the thyroid volume.